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E. Franklin Frazier's Life & Works
Edward Franklin Frazier was born September 24,1894 in Baltimore, Maryland. Upon his graduation from Colored High School, Baltimore (June 1912), he was awarded, the School's annual scholarship to Howard University. He was an excellent scholar, pursuing Latin, Greek, German and mathematics, who found time to participate in extracurricular activities involving drama, political science, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Intercollegiate Socialist Society. His leadership skills were evidenced in his class presidencies of 1915 and 1916.
On graduation from Howard in 1916, Frazier began a teaching career, experiencing high schools in Alabama, Georgia, Virginia and Maryland. During this time he published an anti-war pamphlet entitled God and War. In 1919 he accepted a fellowship to Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts to pursue graduate study, and on completion of his thesis "New Currents of Thought among the Colored People of America" graduated with a Master's degree in sociology in 1920.
In 1920 Frazier became a research fellow at the New York School of Social Work. From 1921 to 1922, he traveled to Denmark on an American Scandinavian Foundation Fellowship, and on his return, he accepted a position at Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia. The Morehouse position allowed him to combine the teaching of sociology with the direction of the Atlanta School of Social Work. It was during his Morehouse tenure that Frazier began his writings on the Negro family. His controversial publication "The Pathology of Race Prejudice" in Forum (June 1927) forced him to leave Morehouse.
He later received a fellowship from the University of Chicago and began pursuit of a doctoral program in 1927. According to G. Franklin Edwards in his "Introduction" to E. Franklin Frazier on RaceRelations (1968), it was during his study at Chicago where he received his doctoral degree in sociology in 1931, that "Frazier became thoroughly socialized into what later came to be called the 'Chicago School of Sociology'." His doctoral dissertation was later published as The Negro Family in Chicago.
Frazier taught at Fisk University 1929-1931 while a doctoral student at the University of Chicago working on his dissertation, and he continued at Fisk beyond that date until 1934 when he assumed the directorship of Howard University's Department of Sociology. He remained an active Director of the Department until 1959, after which he became Professor Emeritus of the Department of Sociology and the African Studies Program. Frazier was elected President of the American Sociological Association in 1948 and received the Association's MacIver Award for his contributions in the field of sociology.
Frazier was a prolific writer, producing some nine books (published in varying translations and editions) and over one hundred articles and essays. Anthony M. Platt in his article "Racism in Academia" published in the Monthly Review (September 1990) writes "His [Frazier] 1949 textbook The Negro in the United States was the first of its kind, a challenge to conventional 'social problems' texts... His ... Race and Culture Contacts in the Modern World, for example was on the cutting edge of progressive scholarship with its effort to understand the political economy of racism in a global context. His Black Bourgeoisie (1957)...was a savage demystification of the 'myth of Negro business'." A significant work, Negro Youth at the Crossways: Their Personality Development in the Middle States (1940) attempts to construct profiles of Negro youth and analyze socialization influences in the cities of Washington , D.C., and Louisville, Kentucky.
Between 1951 and 1953, he served with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),traveling to Paris, Africa and the Middle East. During this period, he continued his writing, focusing on the struggle of people of Africa and African descent to achieve equality, and on religion. His last book The Negro Church in America was published posthumously in 1964.
Frazier died on May 17, 1962. He has been ranked among the top African Americans for his influence of institutions and practices to accept the demands by African Americans for economic, political and social equality in American life. It is for his work and for his contributions to Howard University that the Howard University School of Social Work has created in his honor the E. Franklin Frazier Research Center (official inauguration May 24, 2000).
In the bibliography which follows, attempt has been made to include all titles published by Frazier, but not the varying translations and/or editions and reprints which may exist. The works about Frazier are necessarily selected. Within the given headings, arrangement of the publications is alphabetical by title. For the convenience of persons who may use this as a working bibliography, call numbers indicating location of the items in the Howard University Libraries System (Divinity, Founders, Social Work, Auxiliary Collection) and the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center (MSRC) have been provided. Reproductions of many of Frazier's essays and journal articles are available in The Moorland-Spingarn Research Center.
Researched and Compiled by: Audrey Thompson,
Acting Librarian, Social Work Library,
Howard University Libraries.
May 24, 2000
Works by E. Franklin Frazier
Frazier, E[dward] Franklin.
The Black Bourgeoisie. New York: Free Press Paperbacks published by Simon & Schuster, 1997. (UGL Circulation, E185.86 .F72813 1997 Auxiliary Coll.).
Black Bourgeoisie: the Rise of a New Middle Class in the United States. New York: Collier Books [1979, c1957]. (Social Work E185.61 F833 1979).
Bourgeoisie Noir. Paris: Librairie Plon, 1955,1969. (MSRC M323 F86 b2).
E. Franklin Frazier on Race Relations: Selected Papers, ed. with an Introduction by G. Franklin Edwards. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1968.( Founders E185 F835 1968).
The Free Negro family : a study of family origins before the civil war. Nashville: Fisk University Press, 1932. (Social Work E185 F83).
God and War. [n.p.], [n.d.]. (MSRC M231 F869)
The Negro Church in America. New York: Schocken Books, 1966, c1963. (Founders BR563 N4 F7 1966B).
The Negro Family in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, .
(MSRC M321.1 F86ne).
The Negro Family in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939.
(Founders E185.86 .F74 ; Divinity E185.86 .F74).
Negro Freedmen. New York: Arno Press, 1968.
The Negro in the United States. New York: Macmillan Co., 1949. (Divinity E185 F833).
Negro Youth at the Crossways, Their Personality Development in the Middle States. Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1940. (Divinity E185.6 .F74).
Race and Culture Contacts in the Modern World. Boston: Beacon Press, . (Founders HT1521 F68 1965).
"Black Bourgeoisie: Public and Academic Reactions." in Reflections on Community Studies. Ed. A.L. Vidich, et. al. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1964. 305-311, 349.
"La Bourgeoisie Noire." in Anthology of American Negro Literature, by V.F. Calverton. New York: The Modern Library, 1929. 379-88.
"La Bourgeoisie Noire." in The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader .New York : Viking, 1994. 173-181. (MSRC M810.8 P828 1994).
"Commentary on "The Impact of Western Education on the African's Way of Life." in Africa Today. Ed. C. Grove Haines. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1955. 166-71. (Founders DT5 H25).
"The Cultural Background of Southern Negroes." in Selected Papers of the Institute on Cultural Patterns of Newcomers, Welfare Council of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, October 1957.1-14.
"Desegregation as an Object of Sociological Research." in Human Behavior and Social processes: An Interactionist Approach. Ed. Arnold Rose. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1961. 698-24. (Founders HM131 R78).
"Durham: Capital of the Black Middle Class." in The New Negro, by Alain Locke. New York: A. and C. Boni Company, 1925. 333-40. (Founders NX512.3.N5 L6 1970).
"The Garvey Movement" in The Making of Black America, by August Meier. New York: Atheneum, 1969. 204-208. (Founders; Divinity E185 M43).
"Impact of Colonialism on African Social Forms and Personality." in Publication of Norman Harris Memorial Foundation Lectures on Africa in the Modern World. Ed. Calvin W. Stillman. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955. 70-96.
"Introduction" in Caribbean Studies: A Symposium. Ed. Vera Rubin. Jamaica, B.W.I.: University College of the West Indies, 1957. v-viii (MSRC M972.9 R82).
"The Negro and Racial Conflicts." in One America. Ed. Francis J. Brown and Joseph S. Roucek. New York: Prentice Hall, 1952. 492-504.
"The Negro Family." in The Family: Its Function and Destiny. Ed. Ruth Nanda Anshen. New York: Harper and Bros., 1948. 142-58. (Founders HQ728 A74).
"Negro Harlem: An Ecological Study." in Studies in Human Ecology. Ed. George A. Theodorson. Evanston, Ill: Row, Peterson and Company, 1961. 165-74. (Founders HM206 T48 1961B).
"The Negro in the United States." in Race relations in World Perspective. Ed. Andrew W. Lind. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1955, pp.339-70.
"The Negro Now." Contact, Book 2: Britain Between West and East (1946). 61-63.
"Negro, Sex Life of the African and American." in The Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior. New York: Hawthorne Books, 1961. 769-75. (Founders HQ9 E4).
"Post High School Education of Negroes in New York State." chap. 8 in Inequality of Opportunity in Higher Education, a study of Minority Group and Related Barriers to College Admission, published in A Report to the Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University, by David S. Kerkowitz. Albany: William Press, 1948. 159-74.
"Potential American Negro Contributions to African Social Development." in Africa: Seen by American Negroes, Presence Africaine. Paris: Presence Africaine, 1959. 263-78.
( Founders DT14 A35).
"Problemes de L'Etudiant Noir aux Etats-Unis." in Les Etudiants Noirs Parlent. Paris: Presence Africaine, 1952. 275-83.
"The Racial Issue." in Unity and Difference in American Life. Ed. R.M. MacIver. New York: Harper and Bros., 1947. 43-59.
"Racial Problems in World Society." in Race Relations and Theory: Essays in Honor of Robert E. Park. Ed. Jitsuichi Masuoka and Preston Valien. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1961. 38-50.
"Review of Myrdal's 'An American Dilemma'." in Sociology of Race Relations. N.Y.: Free Press, c1980. 159-162. ( Founders HT1521 S546).
"The Socialization of the Negro Child in the Border and Southern States." in A Casebook. Ed. Yehudi A. Cohan. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Wilson, 1961. 45-53.
"Sociologic Factors in the Formation of Sex Attitudes." in Psychosexual Development in Health and Disease. New York: Grune and Stratton, 1949. 244-55.
"Supplementary Studies" in Inequality of opportunity in higher education; a study of minority group and related barriers to college admission: a report to the Temporary Commission on the Need for a State University, by David S. Berkowitz. Albany: Williams Press, 1948.
"Traditions and Patterns of Negro Family Life." in Race and Culture Contacts. Ed. Edward B. Reuter. . New York: McGraw-Hill Company 1934. 191-207. (Founders HT1521 A5).
"A World Community and a Universal Moral Order." in Approaches to Group Understanding, for Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in their Relations to the Democratic Way of Life, Inc. Ed. Lymon Bryson, Louis Finkelstein, and R. M. MacIver. New York: Harper and Bros., 1947. 443-52. (Founders HM101 C678 1945).
"All God's Chillun Got Eyes." Crisis 29 (April, 1925) :254.
"The American Negro's New Leaders." Current History 28 (April, 1928) :56-59.
"An Analysis of Statistics on Negro Illegitimacy in the United States." Social Forces 9 (December, 1932) :249-57.
"Areas of Research in Race Relations." Sociology and Social Research 42 (July-August, 1958) :424-29.
"The Booker T. Washington Papers." The Library of Congress Quarterly Journal of Current Acquisitions 2 (February, 1945) :23-31.
"La Bourgeosie Noire." The Modern Quarterly 5 (1928-30) :78-84.
"Brazil Has No Race Problems." Common Sense 11 (November, 1942) :363-65.
"Certain Aspects of Conflict in the Negro Family." Social Forces 10 (October, 1931) :76-84.
"The Changing Status of the Negro Family." Social Forces 9 (March, 1931) :386-93.
"Chicago, a Cross Section of Negro Life." Opportunity 7 (March, 1929) :70-73.
"Children and Income in Negro Families." (with Eleanor Bernert). Social Forces 25 (December, 1946) :178-82.
"Children in Black and Mulatto Families." The American Journal of Sociology 39 (July, 1933) :12-29.
"A Community School." Southern Workman 54 (October, 1925) :495-64.
"Comparison of Negro-White Relations in Brazil and in the United States." Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, Series 2, 6, 7, (May, 1944) :251-269.
"Cooperation and the Negro." Crisis 5 (March, 1923) :228-29.
"The Cooperative Movement in Denmark." Southern Workman 52 (September, 1923) :479-84.
"Cooperatives: the Next Step in the Negro's Development." Southern Workman 53 (November, 1924) :505-9.
"A Critical Summary of Articles Contributed to Symposium on Negro Education." The Journal of Negro Education 5 (July, 1936) :531-33.
"Danish People's High Schools and America." Southern Workman 9 (September, 1922) :425-30.
"Discussion." (Health Conditions in the South). Opportunity 2 (August, 1924) :259.
"The Dubois Program in the Present Crisis." Race 1, no. 1 (Winter, 1935-36) :11-13.
"Ethnic and Minority Groups in Wartime with Special Reference to the Negro." The American Journal of Sociology 48 (November, 1942) :369-77.
"Ethnic Family Patterns: The Negro in the United States." American Journal of Sociology 53 (May, 1948) :435-38.
"The Failure of the Negro Intellectual." Negro Digest (February, 1962) :26-36.
"Family Disorganization among Negroes." Opportunity 9 (1931) :204-207.
"Family Life of the Negro in the Small Town." Proceedings of the National Conference of Social Work(1926), pp. 384-388.
"Folk Culture in the Making." Southern Workman 57 (1928) :195-99.
"The Folk High School at Roskilde." Southern Workman 51 (July, 1922) :325-28l.
"Frazier Urges Public Campaign to Implement Court Decisions." Teachers' Bulletin 1 (1950) :3.
"Garvey: a Mass Leader." [New York], 128 (August, 126) 147-48.
"The Garvey Movement." Opportunity 4 (November, 1926) :346-48.
"Graduate Education in Negro Colleges and Universities." The Journal of Negro Education 2 (July, 1933) :329-41.
"How Present Day Problems of Social Life Affect the Negro." Hospital Social Service 13 (1926) :384-93.
"The Impact of Urban Civilization upon Negro Family Life." American Sociological Review 2 (August, 1937) :609-18.
"Is the Negro Family a Unique Sociological Unit?" Opportunity 5 (June, 1927) :165-8.
"King Cotton." Opportunity (February, 1926) :50-55.
"The Mind of the American Negro." Opportunity 6 (September, 1928) :263-66, 284.
"The Negro and Birth Control." Birth Control Review (March, 1933) :68-70.
"The Negro and Non-resistance." Crisis 27 (March, 1924) :213-14.
"The Negro Community, a Cultural Phenomenon." Social Forces 7 (March, 1929) :415-420.
"The Negro Family." The Annals of the American Acdemy of Political and Social Science 130 (November, 1928) :21-25.
"The Negro Family and Negro Youth." The Journal of Negro Education 9 (July, 1940) :290-299.
"The Negro Family in Bahia, Brazil." American Sociological Review 7 (August, 1942) :465-78.
"Negro Harlem: an Ecological Study." American Journal of Sociology 43 (July, 1937) :72-88.
"Negro in the Industrial South." Nation 75 (July, 1927) :83-84.
"A Negro Industrial Group." Howard Review 1 (June, 1924) :196-211.
"A Negro looks at the Soviet Union." Proceedings of the Nationalities Panel, The Soviet Union, A Family of Nations in the War. National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, New York, N.Y. November 1943.
"The Negro Middle Class and Desegregation. " Social Problems 4 (April, 1957 ) :291-301.
"The Negro Slave Family." The Journal of Negro History 15 (April,1930) :198-206.
"Neighborhood Union in Atlanta." Southern Workman 52 (September, 1923) :437-42.
"A Note on Negro Education." Opportunity 2 (March, 1924) :75-77.
"Occupational Classes Among Negroes in Cities." The American Journal of Sociology 35 (March, 1930) :718-38.
"The Occupational Differentiation of the Negro in Cities." Southern Workman 57 (May, 1930) :196-200.
"The Pathology of Race Prejudice." Forum 70 (June, 1927) :856-62.
"The Present Status of the Negro in the American Social Order." The Journal of Negro Education 8 (July, 1939) :376-82.
"Problems and Needs of Negro Children and Youth Resulting from Family Disorganization." The Journal of Negro Education 19 (1950) 269-77.
"Professional Education for Negro Social Workers." Hospital Social Service 18 (1928) :167-76.
"Psychological Factors in Negro Health." Social Forces 3 (March, 1925) :488-90.
"Race: an American Dilemma." Crisis 51 (April 1944) :105-6.
"Race Contacts and the Social Structure." American Sociological Review 14 (February, 1949) :1-11.
"Race Relations in World Perspective." Sociology and Social Research 41 (May-June, 1957) :331-35.
"Rejoinder to Melville J. Herskovits' 'The Negro in Bahia, Brazil: A Problem in Method'." American Sociological Review 8 (August, 1943) :402-404
"Role of Negro Schools in the Post-War World." The Journal of Negro Education 13 (Fall, 1944) :464-73.
"The Role of the Negro in Race Relations in the South." Social Forces 19 (December, 1940) :252-258.
"Significant Study of Urban Negro Life." Crisis 53 (Jan 1946) :25-27.
"Social Equality and the Negro." Opportunity (Journal of Negro of Life) 3 (June,1925) :165-168.
"The Social Status of the Negro." Les Etudes Americaines, 1948.
"Social Work in Race Relations." Crisis 27 (April, 1924) :252-254.
"Sociological Aspects of Race Relations." Courier ( August-September, 1953) :1.
"Sociological Theory and Race Relations."American Sociological Review 12 (June, 1947) :265-71.
"Some Aspects of Family Disorganization among Negros." Opportunity 9 (July, 1931) :204-7.
"Some Aspects of Negro Business." Opportunity 2 (October, 1924) :293-97.
"Some Aspects of Race Relations in Brazil." Phylon, (Third Quarter,1942) :284-95.
"Some Effects of the Depression on the Negro in Northern Cities." Science and Society 2 (Fall, 1938) :489-99.
"The Status of the Negro in the American Social Order." The Journal of Negro Education 4 (July, 1935) :293-307.
"Theoretical Structure of Sociology and Sociological Research." The British Journal of Sociology 4 (December, 1953) :293-211.
"Three Scourges of the Negro Family." Opportunity 4 (July, 1926) :210-1, 234.
"Training Colored Social Workers in the South." Journal of Social Forces 1 (May, 1923) :440-46.
"Urbanization and its Effects upon the Task of Nation-Building in Africa South of Sahara." The Journal of Negro Education 30 (Summer, 1961) :214-22.
"Urbanization and Social Change in Africa." Sais Review 3 (Winter, 1959) :3-9.
"What is Social Equality." (with John Haynes). The World Tomorrow 9 (April, 1926) :113-14.
"Certain Aspects of Conflict in the Negro Family." Publication of the American Sociological Society. Papers.v. 25: 212, May 1931. (MSRC M304 Am3a).
"Crisis in the Education of the Negro." Southside Conference on Discrimination in Higher Education, New Orleans, 1951. 11-22.
"Education and the African Elite." Transactions of the Third World Congress of Sociology, vol. 5. Changes in Education. Amsterdam: 1956. 90-96.
"The Negro in the United States." Conference on Race Relations in World Perspective. Honolulu, 1954. 339-70.
"The New Negro Middle Class." in The New Negro Thirty Years Afterward, papers contributed to the Sixteenth Annual Spring Conference of the Division of Social Science, Howard University Graduate School. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1955. 25-32. (Founders E185.5 H73 1955A)
Papers, 1908-1972. (Manuscript Division, Moorland-Spingarn Research Center, Washington, D.C.)
"The Present State of Sociological Knowledge concerning Race Relations." in Transactions of the Fourth World Congress of Sociology. Milan and Stressa, 1959. 73-80.
"Race Relations in the Caribbean." in The Economic Future of the Caribbean, papers contributed to the Seventh Annual Conference of the Division of the Social Sciences, Howard University Graduate School. Ed. Eric Williams and E. Franklin Frazier. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1944. 27-31.
"Social Trends of Significance for Adult Education" in Proceedings of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Land Grant Colleges, November 13-15, 1939, Metropolotian Community Center, Chicago, Illinois.
Conference of Negro Land-Grant Colleges for Coordinating a Program of Cooperative Social Studies (4th : 1948 : Howard University). Report. Washington,D.C. : Howard University Press, 1949. (Founders E185.5 .A82 1948)
The Integration of the Negro into American Society; papers contributed to the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Division of the Social Sciences, May 3 and 4, 1951. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press for the Graduate School, Howard University, 1951.
(Founders E184.5 .H68 1951)
American National Biography. v. 8. New York, Oxford University Press, c1999. 420-421.
The Black 100: a Ranking of the Most Influential African-Americans, Past and Present, revised and updated by Columbus Salley. "A Citadel Press Book" c 1993, 1994, 1999. 143-45. (Founders Ref. E185.96 .S225 1999).
Contemporary Black Biography. v.10, Detroit: Gale Research Inc., c 1996. 63-67.
(Founders Ref. E185.96 .C66).
Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1998.
(Founders Ref. CT103 .E56 1997).
Higginson, Thomas Wentworth. Army Life in a Black Regiment. Boston: Beacon Press, .
(UGL, Core Collection E492.94 33D H5 1962).
Notable Black American Men. Detroit : Gale Research, 1998. 428-31 (Founders Ref. HDV6316).
"Obituary." New York Times, May 22, 1962. L+, 37.
"Obituary." Washington Post. May 18, 1962. C4.
Platt, Anthony M. "The Rebellious Teaching Career of E. Franklin Frazier." Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 13 (Autumn, 1996) :86-90.
Young, James O. Black Writers of the Thirties. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1973. (Founders Ref. PS153 N5 Y6 1973A).
Cayton, Horace R. "E. Franklin Frazier: a Tribute and Review." Review of Religious Research 5 (1964) :137-142.
Henry, Charles P. "Abram Harris, E. Franklin Frazier, and Ralph Bunche: The Howard School of Thought on the Problem of Race." National Political Science Review 5 (1995) :36-56.
Jackson, Walter. "Between Socialism and Nationalism: The Young E. Franklin Frasier." Reconstruction 1, no.3 (1991) :124.
Kilson, Martin. "The Black Bourgeoisie Revisited: From E. Franklin Frazier to the Present." Dissent 30, no. 1 (130) (Winter, 1983) :85-96.
Landry, Bart. "A Reinterpretation of the Writings of Frazier on the Black Middle Class." Social Problems 26, no.2 (December 1978) :211-22.
Odum, Howard W. American Sociology: the Story of Sociology in the United States through 1950 .New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1951, p.238.
Platt, Anthony M. "Between Scorn and Longing: Frazier's 'Black Bourgeoisie'." Social Justice 20, no.1-2 (Spring-Summer 1993) : 129-140.
Platt, Anthony M.E. (Tony). "E. Franklin Frazier and Daniel Patrick Moynihan: Setting the Record Straight." Contemporary-Crises 11, no.3 (1987) :265-277.
Platt, Anthony M. E. Franklin Frazier reconsidered . New Brunswick [N.J] : Rutgers University Press, [c1991]. (Founders HM22.U6 F736 1991).
Platt, Anthony M. "Racism in Academia: Lessons from the Life of E. Franklin Frazier." Monthly Review 42, no.4 (September 1990) : 29-46.
Platt, Anthony M. and Chandler, Susan. "Constant Struggle: E. Franklin Frazier and Black Social Work in the 1920's." Social Work 33, no. 4 (July-August, 1988) :293-97.
Semmes, Clovis E. "Sociological Tradition of E. Franklin Frazier: Implications for Black Studies." Journal of Negro Education 55, no. 4 (Fall,1986) :484-94.
Schiele, Jerome H. "E. Franklin Frazier and the Interfacing of Black Sociology and Black Social Work." Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare 26, no.2 (June, 1999) :105-25.
Vlasek, Dale R. "E. Franklin Frazier and the problem of assimilation." Ideas in America's Cultures from Republic to Mass Society. 1st ed. Ames : Iowa State University Press, 1982. (Founders E169.1 I34).
Young, Alford A., Jr. "The "Negro Problem" and the Character of the Black Community: Charles S. Johnson, E. Franklin Frazier, and the Constitution of a Black Sociological Tradition, 1920-1935." National Journal of Sociology 7, no. 1 (Summer, 1993) :95-133.